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Rioux et al. Fuchs and Neuman presented a proposal to achieve telepresence for medical applications. Computer generated VEs were originally embraced by architects for design concept presentations and visualisations.


VR is a constructive tool that aids the designer in the act of designing and communicating within a virtual realm Davidson and Campbell, Designers can explore a design without the need of a real artefact. Maze reports that VEs are mostly used for visualisation of AEC projects and only seldom used for designing itself, such as creation, development, form-finding and collaboration.

IVE present new opportunities and answers to design problems through involvement in and with a three-dimensional medium. Schnabel and Kvan claim that designers are challenged to manage perceptions of solid and void, and navigation and function, without the need to translate to and from physical, mostly two-dimensional media while working in VEs.

Subsequently, VEs allows designers to communicate, investigate and express their imagination with greater effortlessness. Despite the advantages, a translation of design and information from VEs into other realities is potentially problematic. Yet, Yip found that a rerepresentation and translation of the design into other environments in fact contributes to the quality of the overall design.

Engagement in Architecture, Design and Construction The definitions of the various realities in the Real-Virtual Continuum allow framing and understanding of the various realms of MEs. The current research of design and construction that employs MR technologies allows for classification of the various realms. They contribute to the understanding of the effects these realities have on the AEC industries. A possible next step is to set up a structure and taxonomy that defines a standard for further research and application.

As MEs were originally embraced for design concept presentations, the advancement of computing allowed designers to interact within the RV Continuum at a more sophisticated level Hendrickson and Rehak, In this context it is interesting to study the level of engagement and abstraction MEs offer to the designer and the design. While reality offers a high sensorial engagement, because of the factual existence of the elements, only a low level of abstraction can be experienced. MEs however, offer not only both of these facets, but also additional layers of information, data and other virtual elements that enrich the experience of the user Figure 3.

Davidson and Campbell found that MEs and VEs are useful realms to engage in design and communication processes. An ME establishes a copresence of a shared understanding and knowledge in spatial interactions.

VR CGIs for architecture and construction design - Kei Studios

Digital models for design or construction are generated with immediacy similar to a physical reality, and constructed to improve the perception and communication of designs. Thus through their high level of interaction and layering of information, MEs provide immediate feedback to its users, which is otherwise impossible within a real or virtual environment. Depth of realms. Yet it is not easy to place designers into an ME. MR technologies and instruments will require further investigation.

The presentation format of digital information can be dictated by the features of workspaces. Assumptions about what works and what does not work need to be constantly challenged. Issues such as usability, interface, navigation, clumsiness of gesturing and limited fields of vision constraints have to be further developed to reach the same ease of use and familiarity as real world experiences. A large body of research in MR is investigates questions of usability, however, mostly only in a constrained laboratory environment.

Problems with working environments and their tools clearly limit what the designers can do. This chapter discussed MR realms and their potential advantages over other design environments. Opportunities exist in the early as well as in the final stages of design. Designers can embrace the use of these realms as a medium to converse with designs and each other in novel ways. The potentials for the construction industries are similarly vast. The intersection between real and virtual elements offers an ideal context for a design or construction team to communicate and interact with spatial issues and the handling of complex data and information before, during and after the design process.

Clear-cut boundaries between real and virtual are eliminated. It is however, necessary to remind the users of MR that the equipment is only an aid and not a solution or remedy. The role of designers is to be in control of their creativity and their actions. The realities presented here allow a maximum of freedom and a minimum of pre-programmed logic in order to engage rather than restrict creativity.

MRs have unlocked new frontiers of engagement in education, collaboration and the profession in architecture and construction. This book chapter presents a review of Augmented Virtuality AV work and different approaches to realise an AV system for remote design collaboration. Using one of the presented approaches, this chapter also describes an Augmented Virtuality-based virtual space for remote collaboration and inspection. The system allows several participants at different locations to collaborate in an augmented virtual environment simulating a traditional meeting.

The general concept, application scenario, prototype implementation, and the use of the AV system in its current state are described in details. This system has the advantage of constructing a virtual environment that incorporates relevant data of the real world into a virtual environment. Introduction The term Virtual Reality VR has been applied in a wide range of situations from the old-fashioned text-based adventure games such as Zork Lebling et al. Accordingly, it is therefore unsurprising that the definition of VR varies as well.

The commonly held view of a VR environment is one in which the user is completely immersed in a totally synthetic world. Further, this world is understood to mimic some properties of the real world but it also has the capacity to exceed the bounds of physical reality Milgram et al. One of the major differences between alternative VR systems is the level of immersion afforded, which could significantly affect the level of presence that users experience through the rendered virtual environment. A low-end example is an ordinary desktop monitor and a highend example could be head-mounted display HMD with a wide field of view.

Over the last decade, computing advances have supported more sophisticated graphics capabilities Hendrickson and Rehak, Presented in this chapter is an Augmented Virtuality-based system that provides the ability for a remote architect to explore a virtual counterpart of a remote place. The virtual counterpart space explored is created to contain realworld images as object textures by mapping certain real elements extracted from the real space onto a virtual environment for richness. The system provides an experience of exploring a virtual representation of a real place. Such texturing creates dual mirror objects in the virtual world.

This introduces the advantage of making a virtual world appear as the real world and the augmented virtual world could be viewed as a mirrored version of the real place. Another advantage of using real images as textures is to give richness to the virtual environment that contains information and immediate access through visual memory to object identification. The virtual elements look like their real counterparts but can be manipulated in the virtual environment. This makes AV a promising method for viewing visual information from the real world, for example to visually and remotely inspect building construction defects in real time via the virtual environment.

Augmented virtual worlds can be created in an automatic way with textures generated from real world images. The virtual world will have some of the appearance of the real world but maintain the flexibility of the virtual world. Objects can be manipulated in a way that the real world does not allow, for example, objects are not dependent on physical laws, and can be changed according to the needs of the user.

How virtual and augmented reality can shape architecture and design

In addition, irrelevant parts of the real world can be omitted, to give the user a more easily understood environment without confusing extraneous information. Related Work Applications in design industries such as architecture, open the door for more innovations in Augmented Virtuality. Despite its potential, Augmented Virtuality has not received nearly the amount of attention paid to Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality. AV has only been applied in very limited domains: such as displays on unmanned air vehicles Rackliffe, , 3D videoconferencing systems Regenbrecht et al.

There is no recognised research effort in relation to AV applications in the architectural domain. The novelty of the work presented in this chapter is supported by the paucity of published research that investigates AV applications in design and collaboration. Hughes and Stapleton , who dealt extensively with dynamic real objects, especially in collaborative Augmented Virtuality environments, conducted the first trial of facilitating collaboration in an AV environment. Two users could sit across from each other in a virtual setting; each has a personal point-of-view of a shared virtual environment, and each could also see the other.

They used unidirectional retro-reflective material so that each user could extract a dynamic silhouette of the other Hughes and Stapleton, These silhouettes could be used to correctly register players relative to each other, and consequently relative to virtual assets. It has nine exhibition rooms, and these rooms are described by polygons with texture mapping with approximately 8, polygons per room. Images were taken from objects actually being exhibited in the museum, and from which their ray-space data were generated. More than 85 objects described by ray-space data were distributed in three of the rooms.

Most of the ray-space data objects in the CyberAnnex were generated with images, and compressed using 18 reference images. Sakagawa et al. The toys and flowers are described by ray-space data that was rendered only by the hardware ray-space renderer. The cyber mall has five rooms including a toyshop, a flower shop, and a boutique where the images were taken from real toys, flowers, and clothes. Augmented Virtuality has also been used in image-guided surgery.

For instance, Paul et al. In their work, they presented a system for creating 3D AV scenes for multimodal image-guided 18 X. CHEN neurosurgery. An AV scene includes a 3D surface mesh of the operative field reconstructed from a pair of stereoscopic images acquired through a surgical microscope, and 3D surfaces segmented from preoperative multi-modal images of the patient. Figure 1.

A scene of the cyber shopping mall Sakagawa et al. An example of such an application is a security system where a guard virtually roams a domain that is composed of fresh video images taken of the scene. Cameras situated around the space could monitor the security space and apply textures to the virtual model. Thus, the security guard could instead monitor a space by navigating through a virtual world instead of observing 2D video cameras. By adding intelligent cameras and simple image processing, any major changes in the scene could attract the attention of the guard.

This should have advantages over 2D video remote monitoring systems.

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Augmented Virtuality Rendering Techniques Merging real and virtual entities requires an understanding of the real entities so that they can be located at the right positions and illumination can be correct. There are three major approaches to rendering Augmented Virtuality scenes: video-based, image-based, and model-based.

The following sections discuss the techniques that can incorporate real entities into the virtual world. The focus of the discussion is a video-based approach. The use of video and texture would significantly alleviate the heavy workload and yield a realistic looking model with the potential for real-time updates. Textures from a video image can be automatically extracted and mapped onto objects. This method is very promising in the areas of telepresence and tele-exploration. An example of such an application, in the context of building science, is a defect inspection system where an architect virtually roams a finished facility, which is composed of fresh video images taken from the real remote site by the local crew.

This allows the architect to inspect the potential defects without the need to step out of the office. Augmented Virtuality can create a virtual camera view that can be positioned anywhere inside the environment. Live video can be shown directly in the view frustum and camera-viewing frames are usually depicted by the wireframe view frustum of a camera.

As multiple camera interfaces can allow users to more easily understand the situation and better support situational awareness because it can provide scenes of a situation from virtually any perspective. Three of the typical classes of camera perspectives are overhead, third-person, and first-person. The overhead camera perspective can assist a supervisor in gaining a general idea of the situation. A team monitoring the progress of a construction zone would likely use such a perspective frequently. A third-person camera perspective can give close-up views showing more details.

For instance, the third-person perspective is useful for remote operators controlling several remote robots to assess the needs of each robot. Operators could quickly judge the relative position and orientation of all the robots. The first-person perspective shows the live video feed of the camera at even closer range. The rendering of the Augmented Virtuality environment depends on the virtual camera, which contains the intrinsic camera parameters.

The pose of the virtual camera is synchronised to one of the real cameras, where the extrinsic camera parameters can be obtained. Any of these events can trigger the camera to produce textures for each window or plane within its field of view. CHEN The virtual camera compares its own position and one of those planes and then uses that information to extract data from the real camera images. The virtual camera then uses these images as textures. This process can be accomplished by projecting the relevant object surface onto a virtual camera image plane that matches the real camera.

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As the virtual camera moves around the virtual environment, the virtual world pulls up textures to resemble the real world scene more closely. Instead of geometric primitives, a collection of sample images is used to render novel views. Image-based rendering IBR uses images, as opposed to polygons, as modelling and rendering primitives. In practice, many IBR approaches correspond to image-geometry hybrids, with the corresponding amount of geometry ranging from per-pixel depth to hundreds of polygons.

Image-based modelling IBM , on the other hand, refers to the use of images to drive the reconstruction of three-dimensional geometric models. Previous work on image-based rendering reveals a continuum of image-based representations Lengyel, ; Kang, based on the tradeoff between how many input images are needed and how much is known about the scene geometry.

These have been classified into three categories of rendering techniques, namely rendering with no geometry, rendering with implicit geometry, and rendering with explicit geometry Shum and Kang, These categories should be viewed as a continuum rather than as absolutely discrete, since there are techniques that defy strict categorisation. The technique used to construct Augmented Virtuality space is IBR, which has been widely adopted in computer graphics. Most image-based rendering techniques have been used in the domains of static environment maps, indoor scenes, or architectural scenes.

The ray-space method Katayama et al. IBR techniques also have application in Augmented Reality systems. Rendering virtual entities of photorealistic quality is an important precondition to merge seamlessly virtual entities into a real environment Tamura et al. IBR uses real image data to render a similar image from an arbitrary perspective. Therefore, the more images that are collected, the more realistic the rendered image looks.

IBR approaches also involve some characteristics that make them less robust. For example, the vast amount of necessary data for IBR requires a large storage space and intensive computing resources to render the images. Accordingly, the size of the computer memory limits the amount of IBR data and compression of the IBR data that is necessary.

This is a requirement for more efficient use of memory and, it allows for the potential to increase the quantity of on-memory IBR data available for practical application. In order to offer a more naturallooking virtual scene, texture mapping is an important approach. A texture is typically a bitmap that is mapped onto a surface of an object.

There are many ways to map the texture onto the surface of specific 3D objects and texture vertices control the mapping. The standard method for texture-mapping is the same as VRML1. Each vertex of a polygon is given a coordinate in the texture coordinate system, a texture vertex. The texture will be mapped onto the surface so that each texture vertex is mapped to its corresponding surface vertex VRML1. Another issue in warping the texture onto the object is the camera skew. A texture extracted from a camera may not contain right angles.

Methods for the automatic construction of 3D models have found applications in many fields, including Mobile Robotics, Virtual Reality and Entertainment. Two categories can be formed from these methods — active and passive. Active methods often require laser technology and structured lights or video, which might result in very expensive equipment. However, new technologies have extended the range of possible applications Castellani et al. On the other side, passive methods usually concern the task of generating a 3D model given multiple 2D photographs of a scene.

In general they do not require very expensive equipment, but quite often a specialised set-up Kanade et al. Passive methods are commonly employed by Model-Based Rendering techniques. In the model-based rendering technique, Augmented Virtuality requires a model as the basis to construct a view and create a virtual camera perspective. The model can be loosely defined as the collection of all data that has been gathered.

For example, a bottom-up perspective of a building structure under construction can be recreated from the model by aligning the virtual camera with that perspective, even if no real camera is actually located. The model can also store historical, extrapolated, and even manually entered data, which can 22 X. One of the main requirements of the model is the ability to store any granularity of data, and display it at the level of detail requested by the user. One of the advantages of the model-based rendering approach is to alleviate the necessity for the video camera to obtain additional data.

For instance, if a user wants detailed data to be collected from a remote monitored place, the user could simply indicate the pre-existing model and obtain data directly via telemetry. Augmented Virtuality System In this section, we describe the general concept of the Augmented Virtuality system and one envisaged application scenario, which will serve as a case study for comparison of concepts and implementation. The requirements listed are derived from state-of-the-art technology in industry and research. Also presented are the desired properties of the target AV system, future research, and discussions of conceptual alternatives.

The AV system provides a communication and collaboration platform for the exchange of a broad range of different types of information. The AV system is embedded in a distributed working environment. Members of a project team situated in different locations need a communication platform to collaborate on their projects. The AV application scenario is that of a planned meeting, not of spontaneous gathering or sharing of information. During this meeting they can discuss changes or improvements to 3D objects derived from CAD data, such as parts, machines, or even entire industrial plants.

Since the objects are virtual, the engineers do not have to meet in one location. In addition, either the objects can be discussed as a whole, compared to other objects, or the focus of discussion can be set to details. As in a real meeting, additional documents are necessary for a comprehensive discussion: a slide presentation for the agenda, goals, details and so on; an application sharing capability to discuss details in the CAD system normally used; and text and spreadsheet document display or a possibility for documentation.

Each meeting has a coordinator who leads the session and has certain rights and obligations, depending on the purpose of the meeting, such as assigning tasks, choosing or manipulating objects to be displayed, et cetera. Figure 2 shows the setup situation when a user is interacting with an AV system.

The AV system takes in user input such as rotation and reposition, and presents the user with a real-time rendered 3D view displayed on the HMD. The user input is mapped onto the four arrow keys of a standard keyboard. A hi-Res HMD is used for the visual feedback to the user. This HMD has two separate displays, which provide 28—24 degree of a diagonal field of view in the horizontal and vertical directions respectively. It also has integrated stereo earphones and an integral microphone, which would be employed for audio conferencing in the AV space.

The projection screen displays the first person view from the AV environment and a camera facing the user is placed on the table. This camera captures the video images of the user, which is embedded into the AV environment for communication. Figure 2. Head-mounted display setup of the AV space Wang and Gong, The main advantage of this setup is the allowance for users to change their view freely inside the augmented environment.

Conversely, the main disadvantage is obviously the cumbersome equipment and the limited field of view and resolution. Figure 3 shows an image that could be displayed by the HMD. The AV environment employs both virtual models as well as photos as X. CHEN 24 texture of walls. It clearly shows the detailed environmental view. Corresponding to the user scenario described above, designers are able to perform inspection activities based on this virtual view. Figure 3. Screenshot of an Augmented Virtuality environment. Users can sit in front of a standard monitor or stand in front of a multi-screen projection screen Figure 4 Figure 4.

Multi-screen setup for the AV environment. A special device or metaphor is needed for navigation within the virtual environment such as a sensor pad installed on the floor. The user should be able to see all parts of the AV environment that are important for self-awareness and for the task to be performed. The selection and modification of 3D objects can be realised by the keyboard.

The type of object manipulations depends on the task executed, ranging from translation and rotation to assembly or modelling actions. Clear and spatial audio is necessary for effective communication. The spatialisation of the sound should indicate the exact location from which a sound originates. In most collaborative virtual reality-based systems, the users are represented either as abstract geometry or as avatars animated 3D characters.

Abstract geometry like a cone seldom supports a sense of presence of another person that is acting on the remote site. Avatars are often not convincing unless they have a very high level of detail and behave properly kinematically, which is computationally very expensive. In AV environments, the participants can be displayed as video images. This provides realistic representations of participants but does not represent the spatial relationship well. The virtual appearance of remote participants should be presented in a way to give sufficient spatially realistic details during distant collaboration for example, eye contact and eye gaze.

This provides each participant with information about what his or her collaborators are looking at. Even when the user moves freely within the room, the system can follow and trace the movements. CHEN 5. Summary This book chapter gives a thorough review of Augmented Virtuality AV work and different approaches to technically realising AV systems. Based on the presented AV approaches, an Augmented Virtuality-based virtual space for remote collaboration and inspection is presented. This chapter introduces the general concept and creation of this Augmented Virtuality prototype that could enhance the intuitive objective of architectural design and collaboration effectiveness by seamlessly inserting real context and experience into a virtual design alternative.

Due to its nature, architectural design is a joint effort and therefore involves more than one stakeholder. A large portion of the design process is communication and potentially benefits from digital design tools. This chapter sheds light on aspects of communication that are particularly interesting in mixed and augmented reality applications.

Because the virtual environment blends in with the real environment, communication facets such as gaze awareness, social presence and other human factors help to provide a framework on which the use of such media can be evaluated. The goal is to outline a new field of design research which targets the mediated interrelationship of real and virtual space introduced through AR and MR technologies.

Augmented Reality, Collaboration, Communication. Introduction Digital design tools are omnipresent in design practice and have helped architects both past and present to explore the functional and formal solution space for architectural problems. Consequently, these digital aids span from dabbling to construction and are already beyond the constraints of pen and paper or other conventional media.

Digital design tools were predominantly developed by fostering the capabilities of conventional tools in such a way that they appear as a logical enhancement from their predecessors. However, this legacy also introduces a constraint that is inherent to the physical nature of 27 X. The objects to be designed can either be virtual or real. With the use of MR and AR in particular the question arises how both virtual and real can co-exist in a meaningful way. An initial milestone in the research of collaborative digital design tools was created by Bradford et al.

Hence, research about digital design started to focus on probing and observing of different media provided by emerging interface technology. Hirschberg et al. Again, design communication was paramount as the focal point for this investigation. Schnabel and Kvan extended this work by observing the quality of design and analysed communication across different settings, like Immersive Virtual Environment IVE and desktop VE. Gao and Kvan measured the influence of a communication medium in dyadic settings based on protocol analysis. Another study by Kuan and Kvan investigated the influence of voxel-based desktop 3D modelling between two different technical implementations.

In order to investigate the impact of TUI and AR an evaluation experiment, integrated into an urban design studio was used. This helped to observe and measure the usage of AR in a practice-near experience for the user and provides real world relevant data. This directly contributes new and transferable knowledge regarding the impact of different affordances of creation interfaces for usage within the design process.

Few studies present methodologies relating to usability evaluation of AR. There is an immediate need to provide these methodologies, and architectural design is not only helpful in this regard, it also is a fertile ground for user evaluation. Future research in this area will lead to applicable guidelines and a framework for the development of simulation environments beyond architecture.

A prominent body of research is the work at Virginia Tech by Hinckley et al. However the taxonomies for usability evaluation are easily transferable to AR and architectural design. Bowman et al. Inherently usability evaluations are tailored to a task. The experiment we introduce here follows this realm with focus on architectural design and utilises a typical setting in a design studio where designers need to comprehend a spatial problem in an early stage of the design process.

Comparable to this study is the one presented by Tang et al. However, it did not take into account the actual communication issues important in a design setting where designers and their peers collaborate. Billinghurst et al. However, their experiment did not assess the factor of presence. A usability evaluation provides insight into how users perceive and interact with the system in a praxis-relevant setting. It permits formulation of hypotheses about the relationships between interface, communication and the design task.

It therefore is a valuable tool to gauge the impact of human factors in the design process. However, a usability evaluation will not provide an absolute measurement rather; it reveals a tendency for improvement or degradation compared to other interfaces. Furthermore, a user assessment regarding a design creation tool is not free from cultural and educational influences. Therefore the data presented in this section might only be valid within the particular user population in which the experiment was conducted.

The aim of this study was to investigate TUI, which lend themselves as a common ground for discussion in comparison to digitizer pens, which are inherently single user interfaces and have been adapted from 2D for the use in 3D. By using an urban design project, one can tap into a viable scenario for a collaborative AR system as it usually involves large site models, which need to be accessed by multiple users.

Physical urban design models can be large in size and therefore difficult to handle easily. The physical properties also limit the ability of the model to present morphological information within its spatial context. For an assessment of the communication pattern, the chosen scenario is valuable because urban design models are shared with several parties in order to discuss, analysis and re-represent design.

These actions require the ability to change and amend parts in-situ and visualise and discuss their impact. The experimentation utilised a formal investigation task in order to evaluate the user input devices. This was preferred to the use urban morphology methods, because methodological preferences would have masked the actual impact of the user interface. Experiment The design of the experiment used two conditions, which only differed in the affordance Gibson, ; Norman, of the input device for a manipulation task.

The objective was to gauge differences between affordances in relation to communication. One setting used an indirect manipulating pen-like interface and the other a direct manipulating TUI Tangible User Interface. As a user interface, the pen is a single-user two-dimensional device which is pressed against a surface in order to create a stroke.

Virtual Reality & Mixed Reality in Construction Engineering

The affordances of pressure and the thickness of the line are linked, thus, physical properties of shape, weight, grip and texture provide the user with cues about its handling. Nevertheless, tools like digitizing boards use this perceived affordance to overlay it with other interactions like mouse movements or graffiti spray. Therefore the pen represents a time-multiplexed Fitzmaurice and Buxton, interface that relies on a secondary constraining entity.

The pen used in this experiment is a 3D input device, which mimics a real pen but uses a button in order to trigger an action rather than being pressed onto a surface. Building cubes inherently afford a shape which can be stacked and used concurrently. Lego bricks for instance are also known to most of us and the building block is the most basic of manual construction materials.

The cube can embody the tool and the object together. The cube interface is therefore a space-multiplexed input device Fitzmaurice et al. The experimental set-up measured the differences between input devices regarding factors like presence, communication patterns and performance. Presence is a substantial factor for measuring effects on task performance in VE Nash et al.

This methodology allows guidelines to be developed for communication enhancing techniques using AR aided collaborative architectural design tools. METHOD This section will introduce the experimental method used and also contains a detailed description of the objective of the design brief given to the participants. It covers the two conditions that were compared, a conventional 3D pen and a tangible user interface. The section continues with an explanation of the conduct of the experimental procedures. If you have ever jumped into the virtual reality world, most technology out there allows you to interact with the virtual world.

This makes VR a powerful design tool. The same way you might produce a model in CAD, could manifest itself in the world of virtual reality. Imagine stepping into a VR world where you have the ability to only build a building but stand inside of it, modifying the elements of your creation as you go.

Boaz Ashkenazy: Visualizing Place With VR, AR, & Mixed Reality

Though this ties somewhat into visualization, allowing the ability to take an idea and modify it in a 3D world is revolutionary. During the design process, you can step into a building change the windows, doors, rooms, etc, all from a headset. VR not only makes the design process more precise and fun, it also has the potential to speed up the design process drastically. Immersiveness is key to selling the right idea to a client. When pitching a new idea to a client, you have to convey all the emotions, ideas and design of your vision. Any architect will tell you that this is not the easiest thing to do.

However, VR makes this process significantly easier. Going back to the idea of visualization, you can very literally give a client a tour of an environment, allowing them to interact with their product. VR tools like nuReality allow you to send a project to a client, have them tour the idea, and even mark up the idea with their feedback, streamlining a process that at times is considered the most difficult aspect of being an architect.

How the environment may impact a building is something that is usually reserved to CAD , yet it has its limits. With VR you can bring to life some of the environmental factors that may impact your building. With VR you can overlay virtual reality environment data with your project to test safety elements of your project bringing to life the ideas of safety , sunlight, and heat for a client.

Whether building bridges, skyscrapers or municipal buildings Autodesk software allows all key personnel to brainstorm using mental images as reference points. Teams become much more powerful when they are able to share these types of ideas in real time. David enjoys writing about high technology and its potential to make life better for all who inhabit planet earth.

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